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The pGEM-T is 3kb in length, and contains the amplicin resistance gene, conferring selection of the plasmid in E. coli, and the ori site which is the bacterial origin of replication. The plasmid has multiple cloning sites as shown below. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning. Many E. coli strains are suitable for the propagation of this vector including JM109, DH5α and TOP10.
The coding sequence can be easily obtained by digesting the vector with proper restriction enzyme(s). The coding sequence can also be amplified by PCR with M13 primers, or primer pair SP6 and T7.
LTBR (lymphotoxin beta receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 3)) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of receptors. Tumor necrosis factor receptor is a trimeric cytokine receptor that binds tumor necrosis factors. The receptor cooperates with an adaptor protein (such as TRADD, TRAF, RIP), which is important in determining the outcome of the response. LTBR is expressed on the surface of most cell types, including cells of epithelial and myeloid lineages, but not on T and B lymphocytes. LTBR specifically binds the lymphotoxin membrane form (a complex of lymphotoxin-alpha and lymphtoxin-beta). LTBR and its ligand play a role in the development and organization of lymphoid tissue and tranformed cells. Activation of this protein can trigger apoptosis. Not only does the LTBR help trigger apoptosis, it can lead to the release of the cytokine interleukin 8. Overexpression of LTBR in HEK293 cells increases IL-8 promoter activity and leads to IL-8 release. It is also essential for development and organization of the secondary lymphoid organs and chemokine release.