Gene Summary: Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. KLK3 gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Its protein product is a protease present in seminal plasma. It is thought to function normally in the liquefaction of seminal coagulum, presumably by hydrolysis of the high molecular mass seminal vesicle protein. Serum level of this protein, called PSA in the clinical setting, is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostatic carcinoma. Alternate splicing of KLK3 gene generates several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]General information above from NCBI
Enzyme regulation: Inhibited by SERPINA5. Activity is strongly inhibited by Zn2+, 100 times more abundant in semen than in serum. This inhibition is relieved by exposure to semenogelins, which are avid zinc binders.
Subunit structure: Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5.
Subcellular location: Secreted.
Tissue specificity: Expressed at high levels in brain, spleen thymus, bone marrow and testis. Expressed in CD34-positive myeloid precursor cells, B-cells, monocytes and megakaryocytes. Expression is tightly regulated during B-cell development.
Post-translational: Sumoylated with SUMO1 (By similarity).
Involvement in disease: Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving BCL11A may be a cause of lymphoid malignancies. Translocation t(2;14)(p13;q32.3) causes BCL11A deregulation and amplification.
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Kallikrein subfamily. Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.
General information above from UniProt
Koistinen H, et al. (2008) Development of peptides specifically modulating the activity of KLK2 and KLK3. Biol Chem. 389(6): 633-42.
Yousef GM, et al. (2002) Kallikreins, steroid hormones and ovarian cancer: is there a link? Minerva Endocrinol. 27(3): 157-66.
Parikh H, et al. (2011) Fine mapping the KLK3 locus on chromosome 19q13.33 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility and PSA levels. Hum Genet. 129(6): 675-85.