Subunit structure: Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.
Subcellular location: Secreted.
Involvement in disease: Hyperproinsulinemia, familial (FHPRI) [MIM:176730]: An autosomal dominant condition characterized by elevated levels of serum proinsulin-like material. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]: A rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood- onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]: A form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the insulin family.