Text Size:AAA

ISG15 Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

ISG15 Related Areas

ISG15 Related Pathways

ISG15 Related Product

    ISG15 Summary & Protein Information

    ISG15 Background

    Gene Summary: ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein that becomes conjugated to many cellular proteins upon activation by interferon-alpha (IFNA; MIM 147660) and -beta
    General information above from NCBI
    Subunit structure: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with, and is conjugated to its targets by the UBE1L (E1 enzyme) and UBE2E2 (E2 enzyme) (Probable). Interaction with influenza B NS1 protein inhibits its conjugation. Interacts with NEDD4.
    Domain: Both the Ubiquitin-like 1 and Ubiquitin-like 2 domains are required for its efficient conjugation to cellular proteins. The two domains play different roles in the ISGylation pathway: Ubiquitin-like 2 domain is necessary for the first two steps allowing the linking of ISG15 to the E1 and E2 enzymes while Ubiquitin-like 1 domain is essential for the final, E3-mediated transfer of ISG15, from the E2 to the Lys of the target protein (PubMed:18356159).
    Subcellular location: Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=Exists in three distinct states: free within the cell, released into the extracellular space, or conjugated to target proteins.
    Tissue specificity: Detected in lymphoid cells, striated and smooth muscle, several epithelia and neurons. Expressed in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Enhanced expression seen in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, endometrial cancer, and bladder cancer, as compared to non-cancerous tissue. In bladder cancer, the increase in expression exhibits a striking positive correlation with more advanced stages of the disease.
    Induction: Strongly induced upon exposure to, viruses, LPS, and other stresses, including certain genotoxic stresses.
    Post-translational: S-nitrosylation decreases its dimerization, thereby increasing the availability as well as the solubility of monomeric ISG15 for its conjugation to cellular proteins.
    Induced as an inactive, precursor protein that is cleaved by specific proteases to expose the C-terminal diglycine (LRLRGG) motif. This motif is essential not only for its conjugation to substrates but also for its recognition by the relevant processing proteases.
    Sequence similarity: Contains 2 ubiquitin-like domains.C
    General information above from UniProt

    Interferon-induced 17 kDa protein (ISG15), a 15-kDa protein of unique primary amino acid sequence, functions intracellularly as an ubiquitin homologue and a cytokine that induces production of IFN-gamma and augments NK / lymphokine-activated killer cell proliferation and function. ISG15 is secreted from monocytes and lymphocytes. ISG15 is an ubiquitin-like molecule that is strongly upregulated by type I interferons as a primary response to diverse microbial and cellular stress stimuli. Alterations in the ISG15 signalling pathway have also been found in several human tumour entities. In addition to being stimulated by type I interferon, expression of ISG15 is greatly induced by viral or bacterial infection through the Janus kinase / signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak / STAT) signalling pathway. After induction, ISG15 is secreted by monocytes, B- and T-lymphocytes and fibroblasts. We demonstrate the novel way in which the function of the ISG15 protein is inhibited by influenza B virus, which strongly induces the ISG15 protein: a specific region of the influenza B virus NS1 protein, which includes part of its effector domain, blocks the covalent linkage of ISG15 to its target proteins both in vitro and in infected cells.

    ISG15 Alternative Name

    UCRP,hUCRP,IFI15,IP17,G1P2, [human]
    IP17,Irfp,UCRP,IGI15,G1p2, [mouse]

    ISG15 Related Studies

  • Cunha J, et al. (1996) In vitro and in vivo secretion of human ISG15, an IFN-induced immunomodulatory cytokine. J Immunol. 157(9): 4100-8.
  • Andersen JB, et al. (2006) The interferon regulated ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in tumorigenesis: friend or foe? Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17(6): 411-21.
  • Nuran Bektas, et al. (2008) The ubiquitin-like molecule interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a potential prognostic marker in human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 10(4): 58.
  • Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"