Interleukin-1 family member 6 (IL-1F6), also known as interleukin 36, alpha (IL36A), is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-1F6 activates MAPK and NF-kB pathways and is produced by many different cells. This cytokine is a family member of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. It has been reported that IL-1F6 and IL-1F8, in addition to IL-1F9, activate the pathway leading to NF-kappaB in an IL-1Rrp2-dependent manner in Jurkat cells as well as in multiple other human and mouse cell lines. Activation of the pathway leading to NF-kappaB by IL-1F6 and IL-1F8 follows a similar time course to activation by IL-1beta, suggesting that signaling by the novel family members occurs through a direct mechanism. In a mammary epithelial cell line, NCI/ADR-RES, which naturally expresses IL-1Rrp2, all three cytokines signal without further receptor transfection. IL-1Rrp2 antibodies block activation of the pathway leading to NF-kappaB by IL-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9 in both Jurkat and NCI/ADR-RES cells. Thus IL-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9 signal through IL-1Rrp2 and IL-1RAcP.