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pMD18-T Simple Vector is a high-efficiency TA cloning vector constructed from pUC18, of which the initial multiple cloning sites (MCS) were destroyed. Thus the cDNA should be amplified by PCR with primers containing a restriction site for subclone. Competent cells appropriate for pUC18 are also appropriated for the Vector, e.g. JM109, DH5α, TOP10. The pMD18-T Simple Vector is 2.6kb in size. Selection of the plasmid in E. coli is conferred by the ampicillin resistance gene. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning at site 425.
The coding sequence can be amplified by PCR with M13-47 and RV-M primers.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1, also known as Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase, IDO1 and IDO, is a member of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase family. IDO1 / IDO and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. IDO1 / IDO is an immunosuppressive molecule inducible in various cells. IDO1 / IDO catalyzes the cleavage of the pyrrol ring of tryptophan and incorporates both atoms of a molecule of oxygen. It mediates oxidative cleavage of tryptophan, an amino acid essential for cell proliferation and survival. IDO1 / IDO inhibition is proposed to have therapeutic potential in immunodeficiency-associated abnormalities, including cancer. The IDO pathway is activated in multiple tumor types. Selective inhibition of IDO1 may represent an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy via up-regulation of cellular immunity. IDO1 / IDO is an enzyme that suppresses adaptive T-cell immunity by catabolizing tryptophan from the cellular microenvironment. Inhibition of IDO pathway might enhance the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer.