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Histone

Histones are the proteins closely associated with DNA molecules. They are responsible for the structure of chromatin and play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Five types of histones have been identified: H1 (or H5), H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Histone deacetylases has been demonstrated to play a major role in the regulation of gene transcription and may be involved in human cancer.

Sino Biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for research on Histone, including recombinant proteins, antibodies (rabbit mAbs, mouse mAbs, rabbit pAbs), ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones.

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    Histone Background

    Histones are the proteins closely associated with DNA molecules. They are responsible for the structure of chromatin and play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Five types of histones have been identified: H1 (or H5), H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. H1 and its homologous protein H5 are involved in higher-order structures of chromatin. The other four types of histones associate with DNA to form nucleosomes. An important feature about histones is that they contain a few lysine (K) residues at the N terminus. Under normal cellular conditions, the R group of lysine is positively charged, which can interact with the negatively charged phosphates in DNA. The positive R group of lysine may be neutralized by acetylation, reducing the binding force between histones and DNA. Such mechanism has been demonstrated to play a major role in the regulation of gene transcription. In addition, several studies have pointed to the possible involvement of histone deacetylases in human cancer.

    Histone References

    1. Marks P, et al. (2001) Histone deacetylases and cancer: causes and therapies. Nat Rev Cancer. 1(3): 194-202.
    2. Cress WD, et al. (2000) Histone deacetylases, transcriptional control, and cancer. J Cell Physiol. 184(1): 1-16.
    3. Jenuwein T, et al. (2001) Translating the histone code. Science. 293(5532): 1074-80.