Influenza HA Proteins

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) Category

Other Influenza A Molecules

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) products related Subtypes

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) products related strains

A/Vietnam/1203/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Anhui/1/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Brisbane/59/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Florida/4/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/California/04/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Brisbane/10/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/14/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Indonesia/5/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Vietnam/1194/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/California/07/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Japan/305/1957 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Netherlands/219/2003 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/Netherlands/1/03 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Hong Kong/1073/99 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/New Caledonia/20/1999 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/NZL/160/1976 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/chicken/Egypt/2253-1/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Ohio/UR06-0091/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Canada/720/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hong Kong/483/97 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/goose/Guiyang/337/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/WSN/1933 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Hong Kong/786/1979 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Japanese white-eye/Hong Kong/1038/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Hokkaido/167/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Egypt/2321-NAMRU3/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Hunan/795/2002 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/American green-winged teal/California/HKWF609/07 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Common magpie/Hong Kong/2256/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Egypt/N05056/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/swine/Guangxi/13/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/Laos/3295/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/mallard/Alberta/294/1977 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/Yangzhou/906/2002 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Swine/Ontario/01911-1/99 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Aichi/2/1968 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Cambodia/R0405050/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/black-headed gull/Sweden/5/99 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/chicken/India/NIV33487/2006 )Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hong kong/213/03 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/mallard/Ohio/657/2002 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Wyoming/03/2003 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Malaysia/2506/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/NY/191255-59/2002 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/green-winged teal/ALB/199/1991 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/AUS/341/1983 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/black-headed gull/Netherlands/1/00 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/pintail duck/Alberta/114/1979 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/northern shoveler/California/HKWF115/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Wisconsin/67/X-161/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Xinjiang/1/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Duck/Hong Kong/p46/97 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Ohio/07/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/England/195/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Texas/05/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/New York/18/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/ostrich/South Africa/AI1091/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Massachusetts/03/2010 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Texas/36/1991 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Texas/50/2012 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/chicken/Jilin/9/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/Guangdong/E1/2012 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Hunan/S11205/2012 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Moscow/10/1999 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Sydney/5/1997 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Victoria/361/2011 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/swine/Korea/PZ72-1/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Egyptian goose/South Africa/AI1448/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/mallard/Ohio/265/1987 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/shorebird/DE/261/2003 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/bar headed goose/Mongolia/143/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hong Kong/CUHK31987/2011 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/turkey/Italy/4602/99 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/Shantou/83/2000 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/shearwater/Australia/1/1973 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/California/06/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/chicken/SK/HR-00011/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/thick-billed murre/Newfoundland/031/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/black-headed gull/Sweden/1/1999 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/NewJersey/8/1976 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Indiana/07/2012 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/Guangdong/C273/2011 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Eastern China/11/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
B/Victoria/02/1987 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Hong Kong/3239/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/breeder duck/Korea/Gochang1/2014 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Hunan/8-19/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hubei/2011 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Brisbane/60/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Beijing/22808/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Perth/16/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/mallard duck/Alberta/299/1977 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/chicken/Alabama/1/1975 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Cambodia/S1211394/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/chicken/HongKong/17/77 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/mallard duck/Alberta/342/1983 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/HongKong/562/1979 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/1997 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Anhui/1/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Shanghai/1/2013Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Hangzhou/1/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Pigeon/Shanghai/S1069/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Vietnam/UT31413II/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/reassortant/IVR-155 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Shanghai/2/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hangzhou/3/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Egypt/3300-NAMRU3/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Zhejiang/1/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/barnswallow/Hong Kong/D10-1161/2010 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hong Kong/35820/2009Hemagglutinin (HA) A/common magpie/Hong Kong/5052/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Shanghai/4664T/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/Italy/22A/1998 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/mallard/Netherlands/33/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/mallard/Minnesota/Sg-00194/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/1A/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Guiyang/1/1957 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/USSR/90/1977 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/VietNam/NCVD-016/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/ruddy turnstone/New Jersey/563/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Hong Kong/1/1968 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/California/7/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/turkey/Italy/214845/2002 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/equine/Kentucky/1a/1975 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Mallard/Astrakhan/263/1982 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Australian shelduck/Western Australia/1756/1983 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/X-31 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/mallard/Ohio/217/1998 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU10/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/equine/Gansu/7/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/turkey/Ireland/1378/1983 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/New York/1/1918 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Fujian/411/2002 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Hubei/1/2010 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Memphis/1/68 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/England/1/1956 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Yamagata/16/1988 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Victoria/210/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/flat-faced bat/Peru/033/2010 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/hubei/2011-CDC Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Babol/36/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Beijing/262/1995 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Hong Kong/448/78 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Guangdong-Luohu/1256/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/little yellow-shouldered bat/Guatemala/164/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Victoria/208/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Taiwan/01/1986 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Victoria/504/2000 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/swine/Belgium/1/1998 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Swine/Wisconsin/136/1997 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Victoria/3/1975 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/quail/Hong Kong/1721-30/99 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Brisbane/59/2007,2008-2009 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/6/2008 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Chile/1/1983 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/swine/Missouri/4296424/2006 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/herring gull/DE/703/1988 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Wisconsin/15/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/Korea/164/04 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Shanghai/Patient3/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/chicken/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/Huzhou/10/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Utah/02/2012 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Albany/12/1951 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/mink/Sweden/3900/1984 Hemagglutinin (HA)
B/Ohio/01/2005 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Brisbane/3/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA)
B/Florida/07/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Hong Kong/05/1972 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/blue-winged teal/Louisiana/Sg-00073/2007 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/New York/06/2009 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/Chiang Rai/277/2011 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/New York/55/2004 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 Hemagglutinin (HA) A/duck/Zhejiang/W24/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA)
A/duck/Zhejiang/6D18/2013 Hemagglutinin (HA) B/Wisconsin/01/2012

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) Protein

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) Gene cDNA Clone

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) Antibody

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) ELISA Kit

Virus Research Tools

Hemagglutinin (HA,Influenza A) Background

Influenza (flu) is a respiratory infection in mammals and birds. It is caused by an RNA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is divided into three main types (Influenza A, Influenza B, and Influenza C), which are distinguished by differences in two major internal proteins (hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)). Influenza virus type A is found in a wide variety of bird and mammal species and can undergo major shifts in immunological properties. Influenza B is largely confined to humans and is an important cause of morbidity. Little is known about Influenza C, which is not an important source of morbidity.

Influenza A is further divided into subtypes based on differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are the most important targets for the immune system. The notation HhNn is used to refer to the subtype comprising the hth discovered Hemagglutinin (HA) protein and the nth discovered neuraminidase (NA) protein. Influenza viruses that are known to infect human include the following sub-types. H1N1 virus that caused "Spanish Flu" (A/BrevigMission/1/1918(H1N1)) and seasonal flu (A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), A/New Caledonia/20/1999(H1N1), and A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)) and a reassorted virus (A/California/04/2009(H1N1)) that caused the 2009 swine flu outbreak; H2N2 virus that caused the "Asian Flu"; H3N2 virus that caused the "Hong Kong Flu"; H5N1 "The Bird Flu" virus (A/Anhui/1/2005 (H5N1), A/Vietnam/1203/2004, A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1), A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/14/2008 (H5N1), A/turkey/1/2005 (H5N1), A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1)) that was the world's major influenza pandemic threat until the Swine Flu Pandemic of 2009; H7N7 virus that has unusual zoonotic potential; H1N2 is currently endemic in humans and pigs; and H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7 viruses.

The influenza viral Hemagglutinin (HA) protein is a homo trimer with a receptor binding pocket on the globular head of each monomer, and the influenza viral neuraminidase (NA) protein is a tetramer with an enzyme active site on the head of each monomer. Subtypes are further divided into strains; each genetically distinct virus isolate is usually considered to be a separate strain.

The influenza virus Hemagglutinin (HA) protein is translated in cells as a single protein, HA0, or hemagglutinin precursor protein. For viral activation, hemagglutinin precursor protein (HA0) must be cleaved by a trypsin-like serine endoprotease at a specific site, normally coded for by a single basic amino acid (usually arginine) between the HA1 and HA2 domains of the protein. After cleavage, the two disulfide-bonded protein domains produce the mature form of the protein subunits as a prerequisite for the conformational change necessary for fusion and hence viral infectivity.

The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) protein is a second major surface antigen of the virion. Neuraminidase (NA) cleaves terminal sialic acid from glycoproteins or glycolipids. Thus, it functions to free virus particles from host cell receptors, to permit progeny virions to escape from the cell in which they arose, and so facilitate virus spread.

On April 29th 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the rapid global spread of a new swine origin strain of influenza A (H1N1) virus (A/California/04/2009 (H1N1), A/California/06/2009 (H1N1), A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)) detected in the previous week warranted moving the global flu pandemic alert level to phase 5. Phase 5 indicates sustained human-to-human transmission of a novel influenza strain of animal origin in one WHO region of the world, and exported cases detected in other regions. Since its outbreak, the new swine influenza H1N1 virus has infected millions of people worldwide and hundreds of death. This new influenza outbreak is commonly referred to as the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has become endemic in poultry in southeast Asia since 2003 and constitutes a major pandemic threat to humans. During 2004, H5N1 virus caused poultry disease in eight Asian countries and infected at least 44 persons, killing 32; most of these persons had had close contact with poultry.

Influenza virus vaccination is an effective approach to control influenza virus infection and pandemic spread of the virus. Each seasonal influenza vaccine contains hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase antigen from three influenza subtype viruses-one subtype Influenza A H3N2 virus, one regular seasonal Influenza A H1N1 virus (not the 2009 H1N1 virus), and one Influenza B virus. Because of the influenza virus continues to mutate (antigen minor drifting or antigen major shifting) over time, the viruses in the vaccine change each year based on international surveillance and scientists' estimations about which types and strains of viruses will circulate in a given year. About 2 weeks after vaccination of the influenza viral antigen, antibodies that provide protection against influenza virus infection develop in the body.

Seasonal influenza virus vaccines are manufactured with a 50-year old egg-based process technology. Virus seed is injected into fertilized chicken eggs and incubated for several days to allow the virus to replicate and accumulate in the fluid surrounding the embryo. The virus fluid is collected from the inoculated eggs and harvested, purified, chemically inactivated and used to produce the vaccine.

Protection mechanism of influenza vaccine is well established to be neutralizing antibody (polyclonal human antibody) raised against influenza viral protein antigen such as the hemagglutinin (HA ) and neuraminidase (NA) protein antigen. Neutralizing antibody can block virus binding to host cells, block viral entry into host cells, and kill infected host cells. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (Mab, mouse monoclonal antibody, rabbit monoclonal antibody, chimeric monoclonal antibody, humanized monoclonal antibody) raised against the hemagglutinin (HA ) antigen or cloned from human B-cells (human monoclonal antibody) have shown to be promising anti-influenza infection product candidates.

Monoclonal or polyclonal antibody can be raised with peptide based antigen or protein based antigen. Antibody raised with protein based antigen could have better specificity and/or binding affinity than antibody raised with peptide based antigen, but cost associated with the recombinant protein antigen is usually higher. Anti influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) monoclonal antibody or polyclonal antibody can be used for ELISA assay, western blotting detection, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry, neutralization assay, hemagglutinin inhibition assay, and early diagnosis of influenza viral infection.

Sino Biological is committed to use its expertise in recombinant protein and antibody development to provide solutions to support the influenza research community worldwide. Our solutions include contract service, recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein reagent, mouse and rabbit anti-hemagglutinin (HA) monoclonal antibody, anti-hemagglutinin (HA) polyclonal antibody, H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibody pair (dual-set) for ELISA assay. All of our monoclonal or polyclonal antibody reagents are generated from immunization with recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigen, and hence should have better specificity and affinity than antibody raised from peptide based antigen. We are committed to develop innovative and cost-effective solutions. More influenza related protein and antibody reagents are coming.

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H1N1 H1N2 H1N3 H1N8 H1N9 H2N2 H2N3 H2N8 H3N1 H3N2 H3N8 H4N2 H4N4 H4N6 H4N8 H5N1 H5N2 H5N3 H5N6 H5N8 H5N9 H6N1 H6N2 H6N4 H6N5 H6N6 H6N8 H7N1 H7N2 H7N3 H7N7 H7N8 H7N9 H8N4 H9N1 H9N2 H9N5 H9N8 H10N3 H10N4 H10N7 H10N8 H10N9 H11N2 H11N6 H11N9 H12N1 H12N3 H12N5 H13N6 H13N8 H14N5 H15N2 H15N8 H16N3 H17N10 H18N11 Influenza B

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A/New York/18/2009
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Reagents for pandemic influenza

2013 H7N9
2009 Influenza Pandemic (H1N1 Swine Flu)
1968 Influenza Pandemic (Hong Kong Flu)
1957 Influenza Pandemic (Asian Flu)
1918 influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu)
H5N1 Influenza Pandemic Threat (Avian Flu)
H7N7 Influenza Pandemic Threat
H9N2 Influenza Pandemic Threat

Influenza related information

Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Protein General Information
Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Protein Structure
Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Protein Function
Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Subtypes and Flu Virus Strains
Influenza A H3N2 General Information
Influenza A H9N2 General Information