Histones are a complex family of highly conserved basic proteins responsible for packaging chromosomal DNA into nucleosomes. Histone proteins exhibit two levels of diversity: 1. evolutionary diversity between species and 2. subtype diversity in a class(H1, H2A, H2B, H3 or H4) within a species. It has become more and more evident that histone modifications are key players in the regulation of chromatin states and dynamics as well as in gene expression. Therefore, histone modifications and the enzymatic machineries that set them are crucial regulators that can control cellular proliferation, differentiation, plasticity, and malignancy processes. However, extracellular histones are a double-edged sword because they also damage host tissue and may cause death. Histones bound to platelets, induced calcium influx, and recruited plasma adhesion proteins such as fibrinogen to induce platelet aggregation. Histone H2B proteins have been studied in a variety of species and is easily detecred in most species. The reversible ubiquitylation of histone H2B has long been implicated in transcriptional activation and gene silencing. Phosphorylation of H2B serine 32 occurs in normal cycling and mitogen-stimulated cells. Notably, this phosphorylation is elevated in skin cancer cell lines and tissues compared with normal counterparts. HIST2H2BE is a member of the histone H2B family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif.
HIST2H2BE ELISA Pair sets
HIST2H2BE cDNA Clones
- HIST2H2BE cDNA Clone / ORF Clone, Cat No: HG11362-M
- Histone cluster 2, H2be cDNA Clone / ORF Clone, Cat No:HG10031-M
GL105, H2B,H2B.1, H2BFQ, H2BGL105, H2BQ, MGC119802, MGC119804, MGC129733, MGC129734[Homo sapiens]
AV127319, H2b-613, T25626[Mus musculus]
Entrez Gene summary for HIST2H2BE:
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2B family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif.
OMIM - description for HIST2H2BE:
Collart et al. (1992) cloned a histone H2B gene, which they termed H2B.1, from a human genomic DNA library. This intronless gene encodes a polypeptide of 126 amino acids. This H2B gene is paired with a functional H2A histone gene (602797), and the 2 genes are separated by a bidirectionally transcribed intergenic promoter region of 329 nucleotides containing consensus TATA and CCAAT boxes and an OTF-1 element. Collart et al. (1992) reported that the 3-prime untranslated region of the H2B.1 gene contains the conserved histone 3-prime stem-loop motif commonly found in cell cycle-dependent histone genes, as well as a polyadenylation signal typical of constitutively expressed histone genes. Alternative splicing of the 3-prime untranslated region of this gene produces both a 500-nucleotide cell cycle-dependent mRNA and a 2,300-nucleotide constitutively expressed mRNA.
Wikipedia summary for HIST2H2BE:
Histone H2B type 2-E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST2H2BE gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2B family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif.
Recommended name: Histone H2B type 2-E
Belongs to the histone H2B family.
Monoubiquitination of Lys-121 by the RNF20/40 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation and is also prerequisite for histone H3 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-79' methylation. It also functions cooperatively with the FACT dimer to stimulate elongation by RNA polymerase II. Phosphorylation at Ser-37 (H2BS36ph) by AMPK in response to stress promotes transcription By similarity. Phosphorylated on Ser-15 (H2BS14ph) by STK4/MST1 during apoptosis; which facilitates apoptotic chromatin condensation. Also phosphorylated on Ser-15 in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and in correlation with somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. Ref.14 GlcNAcylation at Ser-113 promotes monoubiquitination of Lys-121. It fluctuates in response to extracellular glucose, and associates with transcribed genes
The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA. Subcellular location Nucleus. Chromosome.
General information above from UniProt
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Has broad antibacterial activity. May contribute to the formation of the functional antimicrobial barrier of the colonic epithelium, and to the bactericidal activity of amniotic fluid.
- HIST2H2BE role for UBE2A and HIST2H2BE ubiquitylation during the elongation cycle of transcription, suggesting a mechanism by which H3 methylation may be regulated
- HIST2H2BE nucleosome assembly motif