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Influenza A H5N1 (Avian Flu) Hemagglutinin / HA ELISA Pair Set
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Influenza A H5N1 (Avian Flu) Hemagglutinin / HA ELISA Pair Set PDF Download

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Influenza A H5N1 ( Avian Flu ) Hemagglutinin ELISA Pair Set

Order or Inquire for H5N1 ( Avian Flu ) HA ELISA Pair Set
High affinity H5N1 ( Avian Flu ) HA ELISA Pair Set
Detection limit - 78.125 pg/ml
Affordable price and 30%-80% cost saving for Bulk order

  • Materials
  • Protocol
  • Trouble Shooting
  • Image & Flash
     

Problems

Possible Sources

Solutions

No signal

Incorrect or no Detection Antibody was added

Add appropriate Detection Antibody and continue

Substrate solution was not added

Add substrate solution and continue

Incorrect storage condition

Check if the kit is stored at recommended condition and used before expiration date

     

Poor Standard Curve

Standard was incompletely reconstituted or was inappropriately stored

Aliquot reconstituted standard and store at  -70 ℃

Imprecise / inaccurate pipetting

Check / calibrate pipettes

Incubations done at inappropriate temperature, timing or agitation

Follow the general ELISA protocol

Background wells were contaminated

Avoid cross contamination by using the sealer appropriately

     

Poor detection value

The concentration of antigen in samples was too low

Enriching samples to increase the concentration of antigen

Samples were ineffective

Check if the samples are stored at cold environment. Detect samples in timely manner

     

High Background

Insufficient washes

Use multichannel pipettes without touching the reagents on the plate

Increase cycles of washes and soaking time between washes

TMB Substrate Solution was contaminated

TMB Substrate Solution should be clear and colorless prior to addition to wells

Materials were contaminated

Use clean plates, tubes and pipettes tips

     

Non-specificity

Samples were contaminated

Avoid cross contamination of samples

The concentration of samples was too high

Try higher dilution rate of samples

 

 

Influenza A H5N1 ( Avian Flu ) HA ELISA Pair Set Related Products & Topics

Sub-type Strains
H1N1 A/California/07/2009
A/California/04/2009
A/Brevig Mission/1/1918
A/Brisbane/59/2007
A/Puerto Rico/8/34/Mount Sinai
A/Ohio/UR06-0091/2007
A/New Caledonia/20/1999
A/Puerto Rico/8/34
A/WSN/1933
A/Puerto Rico/8/1934
H1N2 A/swine/Guangxi/13/2006
H1N3 A/duck/NZL/160/1976
H5N1 A/Anhui/1/2005
A/Vietnam/1203/2004
A/Vietnam/1194/2004
A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/14/2008
A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005
A/Indonesia/5/2005
A/chicken/Egypt/2253-1/2006
A/goose/Guiyang/337/2006
A/Hong Kong/483/97
A/Japanese white-eye/Hong Kong/1038/2006
A/Egypt/2321-NAMRU3/2007
A/duck/Hunan/795/2002
A/Common magpie/Hong Kong/2256/2006
A/duck/Laos/3295/2006
A/Egypt/N05056/2009
A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005
A/Cambodia/R0405050/2007
A/chicken/India/NIV33487/2006
A/Hong kong/213/03
A/Duck/Hong Kong/p46/97
A/Xinjiang/1/2006
H2N2 A/Japan/305/1957
A/Canada/720/05
H3N2 A/Brisbane/10/2007
A/Aichi/2/1968
A/Wisconsin/67/X-161/2005
A/Wyoming/03/2003
H4N6 A/Swine/Ontario/01911-1/99
A/mallard/Ohio/657/2002
H5N2 A/American green-winged teal/California/HKWF609/07
H5N3 A/duck/Hokkaido/167/2007
H5N8 A/duck/NY/191255-59/2002
H6N1 A/northern shoveler/California/HKWF115/2007
H7N7 A/Netherlands/219/2003
A/chicken/Netherlands/1/03
H8N4 A/pintail duck/Alberta/114/1979
H9N2 A/Hong Kong/1073/1999
A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99
H10N3 A/duck/Hong Kong/786/1979
H11N2 A/duck/Yangzhou/906/2002
H11N9 A/mallard/Alberta/294/1977
H12N5 A/green-winged teal/ALB/199/1991
H13N8 A/black-headed gull/Netherlands/1/00
H15N8 A/duck/AUS/341/1983
H16N3 A/black-headed gull/Sweden/5/99
Influenza B B/Florida/4/2006
B/Malaysia/2506/2004

Influenza A H5N1 ( Avian Flu ) HA Background

Influenza (flu) is a viral respiratory infection in mammals and birds. This virus is divided into three main types (A, B and C). Influenza A is found in a wide variety of mammalian and avian species and is associated with the major human pandemics. Influenza B is largely confined to humans and became unexpectedly prevalent in humans during 2000-2002. Influenza C infects humans, dogs and pigs and generally causes only mild upper respiratory tract infection. However, influenza A and B viruses cause a wide spectrum of severe disease including lower respiratory, tract infection, pneumonia and encephalitis. Influenza A is further divided into subtypes based on antigenic differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). 16 HAs (H1-H16) and 9 NA (N1-N9) had been identified. While different combinations of the two antigens appear more frequently in some groups of birds than others, only few subtypes have established themselves in humans (HA:H1, H2, and H3; NA: N1 and N2).

Sustained, widespread highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 epidemics represent a significant public health hazard because they not only cause mortality in poultry but also increase the risk of a human influenza pandemic. In 1997, the first case of human infected H5N1 was reported in Hongkong, China. Avian influenza have broken the species barrier and made heavy threaten to human health. In the process of epidemic, more than 100 countries had found more than 400 human avian influenza infected cases, within 262 patients dead. Since two human-to-human transmission cases were reported in China, controlling the interspecies transmission of avian influenza is of critical importance. At least 4 major antigenic groups of H5N1 viruses currently in circulation have caused infection in humans. The recent emergence and development of the unique antigenic FJ-like virus (clade 2.3.4) in Asia, the continuous circulation and expansion of Qinghai-like virus (clade 2.2) in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, and the persistent prevalence of clade 2.1 viruses in Indonesia, and classic Clade 1 in Vietnam and Hong Kong.

Hemagglutinin (HA), which binds to sialic acid (SA)-containing receptors on host cells, is the protein that produces neutralizing antibodies. Hemagglutinin plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction and virulence because human influenza HA preferentially binds to SA-α-2,6 while avian influenza HA preferentially binds to SA-α-2,3. The cleavage of HA into two disulfide-linked subunits, HA1 and HA2, is a prerequisite for initiating infection. Usually HA is restricted to be cleaved at respiratory tracts by limited proteases. Highly pathogenic avian influenza contains a stretch of basic residues adjacent to the HA cleavage site, enabling its HA to be cleaved by a wide range of proteases with ubiquitous tissue distributions. This process permits productive virus replication in organs outside of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, including the brain, resulting in widespread disease and high mortality rates.

 

All Influenza Research Reagents (click)

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Protein : hemagglutinin (HA)neuraminidase (NA)nucleoprotein (NP)matrix protein 1 (M1)nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)nonstructural protein 2 (NS2)influenza antigen (influenza protein)
Antibody : hemagglutinin antibodyneuraminidase antibodynucleoprotein antibodymatrix protein 1 antibodyH1N1 antibodyH5N1 antibodyH3N2 antibodyH9N2 antibodyH2N2 antibodyH4N6 antibodyH11N2 antibodyH12N5 antibodyH15N8 antibodyH16N3 antibodyinfluenza B antibody
ELISA Kit : Influenza ELISA Kit
Gene : Influenza Gene / Influenza cDNA Clone

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HA

H1N1-HA H1N2-HA H1N3-HA H2N2-HA H3N2-HA
H4N4-HA H4N6-HA H4N8-HA H5N1-HA H5N2-HA
H5N3-HA H5N8-HA H6N1-HA H6N4-HA H7N7-HA
H8N4-HA H9N2-HA H10N3-HA H10N9-HA H11N2-HA
H11N9-HA H12N1-HA H12N5-HA H13N8-HA H15N8-HA
H16N3-HA Influenza B-HA      

NA

H1N1-NA H5N1-NA H3N2-NA H9N2-NA  

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Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"