Sino Biological provides a comprehensive set of tools for the study of granzymes, including recombinant proteins, antibodies (rabbit mAbs, mouse mAbs, and rabbit pAbs), ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones.
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Granzymes are serine proteases that are stored and released by cytoplasmic granules within natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells. They are used as a molecular weapon for the defense against virus-infected and malignantly transformed host cells. Granzymes induce apoptosis within virus-infected cells, thus destroying them. Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells release a protein called perforin, a pore-forming protein, which attacks the target cells. perforin delivers the granzymes into the target cell, where they activate distinct cell death pathways. There are 5 human granzymes (A, B, H, K, and M) and 11 mouse granzymes (A-G and K-N) have been discovered, each with their own substrate specificity and regulated expression. Granzyme B-induced cell death exhibits classic apoptotic characteristics, while other granzymes display alternate forms of cell death, each with unique characteristics. Granzyme B can directly and efficiently cleave but only partially process several effector caspases including caspase-3 (which also requires auto-processing for full activation). This effector caspase signaling initiates the release of the DNase involved in DNA damage from its inhibitor thereby inducing cell death. Granzyme B is also able to cleave the pro-apoptotic protein Bid into its truncated form (tBid), leading to mitochondrial damage and release of SMAC/DIABLO and cytochrome c, formation of an apoptosome resulting in DNA fragmentation. Granzyme A-induced cell death is characterized by two key features not observed during Granzyme B induced cell death: single stranded DNA nicks rather than DNA fragmentation, and independence of caspase activation. Besides their roles in inducing cell death, granzuymes have also been suggested playing a role in the human and mouse inflammatory response. Granzyme A can influence the production and processing of certain inflammatory cytokines in monocytes and fibroblast cell lines, significantly inducing IL-8 and IL-6 production in vitro possibly through thrombin receptor cleavage.