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Glucokinase Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

Glucokinase Related Areas

Glucokinase Related Pathways

Glucokinase Related Product

    Glucokinase Summary & Protein Information

    Glucokinase Background

    Gene Summary: Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. Alternative splicing of  GCK gene results in three tissue-specific forms of glucokinase, one found in pancreatic islet beta cells and two found in liver. The protein localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. In contrast to other forms of hexokinase, this enzyme is not inhibited by its product glucose-6-phosphate but remains active while glucose is abundant. Mutations in GCK gene have been associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY2) and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
    General information above from NCBI
    Catalytic activity: ATP + D-glucose = ADP + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
    Enzyme regulation: This may constitute an important feedback loop for maintaining glucose homeostasis. Subject to allosteric regulation.
    Subunit structure: Monomer.
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is expressed in pancreas. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 is expressed in liver.
    Involvement in disease: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 2 (MODY2) [MIM:125851]: A form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age). Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 3 (HHF3) [MIM:602485]: Most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy. Unless early and aggressive intervention is undertaken, brain damage from recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia may occur. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Sequence similarity: Belongs to the hexokinase family.
    General information above from UniProt

    Glucokinase belongs to the bacterial glucokinase family. Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three tissue-specific forms of glucokinase, one found in pancreatic islet beta cells and two found in liver. The protein localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. In contrast to other forms of hexokinase, this enzyme is not inhibited by its product glucose-6-phosphate but remains active while glucose is abundant. Mutations in this gene have been associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY2) and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI). It can Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage. It has a pivotal role as glucose sensor of the pancreatic beta-cells. Glucokinase explains the capacity, hexose specificity, affinities, sigmoidicity, and anomeric preference of pancreatic islet glycolysis, and because stimulation of glucose metabolism is a prerequisite of glucose stimulation of insulin release, glucokinase also explains many characteristics of this beta-cell function. Glucokinase of the beta-cell is induced or activated by glucose in contrast to liver glucokinase, which is regulated by insulin. Tissue-specific regulation corresponds with observations that liver and pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase are structurally distinct. Glucokinase could play a glucose-sensor role in hepatocytes as well, and certain forms of diabetes mellitus might be due to glucokinase deficiencies in pancreatic beta-cells, hepatocytes, or both.

    Glucokinase Alternative Name

    GLK,hexokinase-DFGQTL3,HKIV,MODY2,GCK,GK,Glucokinase,hexokinase 4,hexokinase D,hexokinase type IV,HHF3,HK IV,HK4,HXKP,LGLK,pancreatic isozyme, [human]
    Glk,HKIV,HXKP,MODY2,OTTMUSP00000006667,Gck,Gk,Glucokinase,hexokinase 4,hexokinase type IV,hexokinase-DRP23-340E18.1,HK IV,HK4, [mouse]

    Glucokinase Related Studies

  • Matschinsky FM. (1990) Glucokinase as glucose sensor and metabolic signal generator in pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes. Diabetes. 39(6): 647-52.
  • Magnuson MA, et al. (2004) Glucokinase as a glucose sensor: past, present, and future. Glucokinase And Glycemic Disease: From Basics to Novel Therapeutics (Frontiers in Diabetes). Basel: S. Karger AG (Switzerland). pp. 18-30.
  • Cardenas ML. (2004) Comparative biochemistry of glucokinase. Glucokinase And Glycemic Disease: From Basics to Novel Therapeutics (Frontiers in Diabetes). Basel: S. Karger AG (Switzerland). pp. 31-41.
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