GM2A (GM2 ganglioside activator), is a lipid transfer protein which belongs to the ML domain family. GM2A can accommodate several single chain phospholipids and fatty acids. It also exhibits some calcium-independent phospholipase activity. GM2A binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. GM2A acts as a substrate specific co-factor for the lysosomal enzyme β-hexosaminidase A. β-hexosaminidase A, together with GM2 ganglioside activator, catalyzes the degradation of the ganglioside GM2, and other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3. Defects in GM2A are the cause of GM2-gangliosidosis type AB (GM2GAB), also known as Tay-Sachs disease AB variant.