Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) & Receptor
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|Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) & Receptor Information|
Fibroblast growth factors are a family of proteins involved in angiogenesis, cell growth, wound healing, embryonic development and many other aspects of development. Fibroblast growth factors play key roles in the processes of proliferation and differentiation of wide variety of cells and tissues. In humans, 22 members of the FGF family have been identified, all of which are structurally related signaling molecules. The activity of FGF family ligands is mediated by the FGF receptor tyrosine kinases, including FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4.
When Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) binding with FGFRs in a FGF:FGFR:HPSG ternary complex form, dimerization of FGFRs occurs, which causes the receptors to be phosphorylated at the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and carboxy-terminal tail. Subsequently, the phosphorylated tyrosine recruits specific molecules, which interact with SH2 (Src homology-2) or PTB (phosphotyrosine binding) domains of adaptors docking proteins or signaling enzymes, forming signaling complexes. Then, a cascade of phosphorylation events occurs at the recruited complexes and induces a number of signaling pathways, such as the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, resulting in specific cellular responses.