Ebola virus belongs to the Filoviridae family can cause epidemics of haemorrhagic fever with high case-fatality rates. Ebola virus (EBOV) contains a single-stranded, negative sense ~19kb RNA genome and is classified into five known species of EBOV: Zaire Ebolavirus( ZEBOV / EBOV), Sudan eoblavirus (SUDV / SEBOV); Taï Forest ebolavirus (formerly Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, abbreviation:TAFV / CIEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV / RESTV). While Reston EBOV does not cause Ebola virus disease in humans, the other four species cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) / Ebola virus disease, with human mortality rates between 40–90% and no Ebola virus vaccines or antivirals are currently available, Ebola virus (EBOV) is a select agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen.
Ebola virus symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to ebolavirus though 8-10 days is most common. If infected by Ebola virus, people will have a sudden onset of fever after incubation period. If untreated, the fatality rate can reach 90%. Even be treated, people have to accept the fact that the fatality rate is as high as 60%. Typical Ebola virus symptoms are similar to flu or dengue fever, including fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain and lack of appetite. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function. Some patients may also experience red eyes, hiccups, cough, sore throat, chest pain, difficulty breathing and difficulty swallowing. And finally, it turns into both internal and external bleeding.
Bleeding is the worst Ebola virus symptom. It involves internal and external bleeding, such as skin bleeding and visceral hemorrhage. Internal bleeding results to red eye and bloody vomit, coughing blood up or blood in the stool. Bleeding into the skin may cause petechiae, hematomas and so on. In general, the development of bleeding symptoms often indicates a worse prognosis and this blood loss can result in death.