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DNA Methylation

DNA methylation is the biological process by which a methyl group, which is an organic functional group with the formula CH3, is added to DNA nucleotide. The DNA in many different types of organisms can undergo DNA methylation, though it does not always necessarily serve the same function.

Sino Biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for DNA methylation related studies, including recombinant proteins, antibodies (rabbit mAbs, mouse mAbs, rabbit pAbs), ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones.

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    DNA Methylation Background

    DNA methylation is the biological process by which a methyl group, which is an organic functional group with the formula CH3, is added to DNA nucleotide. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is an important nucleic acid that stores the genetic information for any given organism. It is made up of four different molecules known as nucleotides; these are referred to as adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Through DNA methylation, a methyl group can be attached to a carbon atom on cytosine or to a nitrogen atom on adenine. The addition of a methyl group to these nucleotides can serve many important biological purposes, such as suppressing potentially harmful viral genetic information that is present in the human genome.

    The DNA in many different types of organisms can undergo DNA methylation, though it does not always necessarily serve the same function. In plants, for example, scientists believe that methylation occurs to deactivate genes that could otherwise cause harmful mutations. In fungi, DNA methylation is used to moderate and control the expression of certain genes based on the particular conditions affecting the fungus. Methylation in mammals similarly moderates and inhibits the expression of certain genes; additionally, it is involved in the production of chromatin, a protein-DNA complex that makes up the structure of chromosomes.

    DNA Methylation References

      1. Bird AP. (1986) CpG-rich islands and the function of DNA methylation.Nature. 321(6067): 209-13.
      2. Jones PA, et al. (1980) Cellular differentiation, cytidine analogs and DNA methylation. Cell. 20(1): 85-93.
      3. Li E, et al. (1993) Role for DNA methylation in genomic imprinting. Nature. 366(6453): 362-5.