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The pGEM-T is 3kb in length, and contains the amplicin resistance gene, conferring selection of the plasmid in E. coli, and the ori site which is the bacterial origin of replication. The plasmid has multiple cloning sites as shown below. The coding sequence was inserted by TA cloning. Many E. coli strains are suitable for the propagation of this vector including JM109, DH5α and TOP10.
The coding sequence can be easily obtained by digesting the vector with proper restriction enzyme(s). The coding sequence can also be amplified by PCR with M13 primers, or primer pair SP6 and T7.
C5a is a protein fragment released from complement component C5. This 74 amino acid peptide in humans is generated by the cleavage of C5a convertase on the C5 α-chain during the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of complement activation. The structure of C5a includes a core region consisting of four, anti-parallel alpha-helices held together by three disulfide linkages and a structured C-terminal tail, and C5a is rapidly metabolised by carboxypeptidase B to a 73 amino acid low activity form, C5a des-Arg. C5a is an extremely potent proinflammatory mediator, as well as a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils and other leukocytes. It causes histamine release, increases in vascular permeability, induces several cytokines production from leukocytes, enhances neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion, and augments the humoral and cell-mediated immune response. C5a is quickly metabolised by carboxypeptidases, forming the less potent C5adesArg. Acting via a classical G protein-coupled receptor, CD88, C5a and C5adesArg exert a number of effects essential to the innate immune response, while their actions at the more recently discovered non-G protein-coupled receptor, C5L2 (or GPR77), remain unclear. The widespread expression of C5a receptors throughout the body allows C5a to elicit a broad range of effects. Thus, C5a has been found to be a significant pathogenic driver in a number of immuno-inflammatory diseases, making C5a inhibition an attractive therapeutic strategy. C5a is a strong chemoattractant and is involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and T lymphocytes, in activation of phagocytic cells and release of granule-based enzymes and generation of oxidants, all of which may contribute to innate immune functions or tissue damage. Accordingly, the anaphylatoxin C5a is implicated in a variety of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease, and sepsis.