Cathepsins are proteases found in many types of cells conserved in all animals, which have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover such as bone resorption. The lysosomal cysteine protease Cathepsin C (CTSC), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI/DPP1), activates a number of granule-associated serine proteases with pro-inflammatory and immune functions by removal of their inhibitory N-terminal dipeptides. This lysosomal exo-cysteine protease belonging to the peptidase C1 family. Active cathepsin C is found in lysosomes as a 2-kDa multimeric enzyme. Subunits constituting this assembly all arise from the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor giving rise to three peptides: the propeptide, the alpha- and the beta-chains. It is a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in immune/inflammatory cells. Defects in the Cathepsin C have been shown to be a cause of Papillon-Lefevre disease, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratosis and periodontitis. Cathepsin C plays a key role in the activation of several degradative enzymes linked to tissue destruction in inflammatory diseases. Thus, it is a therapeutic target for the treatment of a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.