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>Cancer Biomarker / Cancer Biomarkers
Cancer Biomarker / Cancer Biomarkers
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) definition of biomarker is: “A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. A biomarker may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition. Naturally, a cancer biomarker pertains to any biomarker that fits the aforementioned definition but only for cancer, and no other disease. Actually, cancer biomarkers are more than just a signal of the disease, and have many roles in the fight against cancer. More about cancer biomarker definition.
Cancer biomarkers can be used for screening the general population, for differential diagnosis in symptomatic patients, and for clinical staging of cancer. Additionally, these cancer biomarkers can be used to estimate tumor volume, to evaluate response to treatment, to assess disease recurrence through monitoring, or as prognostic indicators of disease progression. Roles of cancer biomarkers can be defined as prognostic, diagnostic or predictive, and so on, but still has limitations. More about Cancer Biomarker Roles.
A number of different types and forms of cancer biomarkers exist. These cancer biomarkers include hormones, as well as different functional subgroups of proteins such as enzymes, glycoproteins, oncofetal antigens and receptors. Furthermore, other changes in tumors, such as genetic mutations, amplifications or translocations, and changes in microarray-generated profiles (genetic signatures), are also forms of cancer biomarkers. More about Cancer Biomarker Types.
Every era of cancer biomarker discovery seems to be associated closely with the emergence of a new and powerful analytical technology. The introduction of technologies has led to renewed interest in discovering novel cancer biomarkers. A number of important limitations to the discovery of novel single tumor markers have been identified. We outline a number of strategies for cancer biomarker discovery, and we discuss their merits and limitations. More about Cancer Biomarker Discovery.
FDA approval dates for tests were obtained from the FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health database. Proteins designated here as clinical cancer biomarkers are those offered commercially by ARUP or by Mayo Medical Laboratories, or else offered for internal use by either NIH or the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. More about Cancer Biomarkers in Clinical Use.
In recent years, the emerging science of genomics and proteomics have generated a plethora of candidate cancer biomarkers. The value of a list of existing candidate cancer biomarkers could be limited by the general lack of sensitivity and specificity exhibited by most of the cancer biomarkers found to date. The higher priority candidate biomarkers for cancers involve breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and so on. More about Candidate Cancer Biomarker.
Latest news about cancer biomarkers. For example, "New MIT technology may help make cancer biomarker detection much easier", "Scientists discover FAIM molecule as potential biomarker for bone marrow cancer", etc. More about Cancer Biomarker News.
- Kulasingam V, et al. (2007) Tissue culture-based breast cancer biomarker discovery platform. Int J Cancer. 123(9):2007-12.
- Sawyers CL. (2008) The cancer biomarker problem. Nature. 452(7187):548-52.
- Johansen JS, et al. (2009) Plasma YKL-40: a potential new cancer biomarker? Future Oncol. 5(7):1065-82.
- Wang P, et al. (2009) The evolving role of mass spectrometry in cancer biomarker discovery. Cancer Biol Ther. 8(12):1083-94.
- Boffetta P. (2010) Exploring a cancer biomarker: the example of C-reactive protein. J Natl Cancer Inst. 102(3):142-3.
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