CXCL1 gene encodes a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. The encoded protein is a secreted growth factor that signal through the G-protein coupled receptor, CXC receptor 2. This protein plays a role in inflammation and as a chemoattractant for neutrophils. Aberrant expression this protein is associated with the growth and progression of certain tumors. A naturally occurring processed form of this protein has increased chemotactic activity. Alternate splicing results in coding and non-coding variants of CXCL1 gene. A pseudogene of CXCL1 gene is found on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
OMIM-Description for CXCL1
Chemokines are a group of small (approximately 8 to 14 kD), mostly basic, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes through interactions with a subset of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. Chemokines are divided into 2 major subfamilies, CXC and CC, based on the arrangement of the first 2 of the 4 conserved cysteine residues; the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CXC chemokines are further subdivided into ELR and non-ELR types based on the presence or absence of a glu-leu-arg sequence adjacent and N terminal to the CXC motif. ELR types are chemotactic for neutrophils, while non-ELR types are chemotactic for lymphocytes.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the CXCL1 gene.
CXCL1 has chemotactic activity for neutrophils. CXCL1 may play a role in inflammation and exerts its effects on endothelial cells in an autocrine fashion. In vitro, the processed forms GRO-alpha(4-73), GRO-alpha(5-73) and GRO-alpha(6-73) show a 30-fold higher chemotactic activity.
CXCL1 is growth regulator
CXCL1 has melanoma growth stimulating activity
CXCL1 may play a role in inflammation and exerts its effects on endothelial cells in an autocrine fashion
CXCL1 is potent inducer of senescence in stromal fibroblasts (depending on functional TP53), having a role for cell survival and the malignant transformation of ovarian epithelial cells
both CXCL1 and CXCR2 play an important role in chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration following adenoviral corneal infection, but have a redundant role in the development of keratitis