Gene Summary: The protein encoded by CSF1R gene is the receptor for colony stimulating factor 1, a cytokine which controls the production, differentiation, and function of macrophages. This receptor mediates most if not all of the biological effects of this cytokine. Ligand binding activates the receptor kinase through a process of oligomerization and transphosphorylation. The encoded protein is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor and member of the CSF1/PDGF receptor family of tyrosine-protein kinases. Mutations in CSF1R gene have been associated with a predisposition to myeloid malignancy. The first intron of CSF1R gene contains a transcriptionally inactive ribosomal protein L7 processed pseudogene oriented in the opposite direction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]General information above from NCBI
Catalytic activity: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
Enzyme regulation: Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. CSF1 or IL34 binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by imatinib/STI-571 (Gleevec), dasatinib, sunitinib/SU11248, lestaurtinib/CEP-701, midostaurin/PKC-412, Ki20227, linifanib/ABT-869, Axitinib/AG013736, sorafenib/BAY 43- 9006 and GW2580.
Subunit structure: Interacts with INPPL1/SHIP2 and THOC5 (By similarity). Monomer. Homodimer. Interacts with CSF1 and IL34. Interaction with dimeric CSF1 or IL34 leads to receptor homodimerization. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PLCG2 (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PIK3R1 (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with FYN, YES1 and SRC (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with CBL, GRB2 and SLA2.
Domain: The juxtamembrane domain functions as autoinhibitory region. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in this region leads to a conformation change and activation of the kinase.
The activation loop plays an important role in the regulation of kinase activity. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in this region leads to a conformation change and activation of the kinase.
Subcellular location: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.
Tissue specificity: Expressed in bone marrow and in differentiated blood mononuclear cells.
Induction: Up-regulated by glucocorticoids.
Post-translational: Autophosphorylated in response to CSF1 or IL34 binding. Phosphorylation at Tyr-561 is important for normal down-regulation of signaling by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Phosphorylation at Tyr-561 and Tyr-809 is important for interaction with SRC family members, including FYN, YES1 and SRC, and for subsequent activation of these protein kinases. Phosphorylation at Tyr-699 and Tyr-923 is important for interaction with GRB2. Phosphorylation at Tyr-723 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-708 is important for normal receptor degradation. Phosphorylation at Tyr-723 and Tyr-809 is important for interaction with PLCG2. Phosphorylation at Tyr-969 is important for interaction with CBL. Dephosphorylation by PTPN2 negatively regulates downstream signaling and macrophage differentiation.
Ubiquitinated. Becomes rapidly polyubiquitinated after autophosphorylation, leading to its degradation.
Involvement in disease: Note=Aberrant expression of CSF1 or CSF1R can promote cancer cell proliferation, invasion and formation of metastases. Overexpression of CSF1 or CSF1R is observed in a significant percentage of breast, ovarian, prostate, and endometrial cancers.
Note=Aberrant expression of CSF1 or CSF1R may play a role in inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, atherosclerosis, and allograft rejection.
Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids (HDLS) [MIM:221820]: An autosomal dominant adult-onset rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by variable behavioral, cognitive, and motor changes. Patients often die of dementia within 6 years of onset. Brain imaging shows patchy abnormalities in the cerebral white matter, predominantly affecting the frontal and parietal lobes. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily.
Contains 5 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
General information above from UniProt