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B Cell

Sino biological offers a wide selection of tools for B cell related research. These include high-purity recombinant proteins, high-specific antibodies and ORF cDNA clones.

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B Cell Background

B Cells play an important role in the humoral immune response of adaptive immunity. The abbreviation "B", in B cell, comes from the bursa of Fabricius in birds, where they mature. While in most mammals B cells are produced in the bone marrow, and migrate to the spleen where they differentiate into mature B cells. As essential components of the adaptive immune system, B cells are responsible for producing antibodies against specific antigens.

B cell development occurs through several stages. The earliest stage is called the B progenitor cell; lymphoid progenitor cells receive signals from bone marrow stromal cells to begin B cell development. Subsequent stages include the pro-B cell; the pre-B cell; the immature B cell; the virgin or mature B cell; the activated B cell; the B lymphoblast; the plasma B cell or the memory B cell. Each B cell has a unique receptor protein (referred to as the B cell receptor) on its surface that will bind to one particular antigen. The B cell receptor allows the distinction of B cells from other types of lymphocyte, as well as being the main protein involved in B cell activation. Following antigen recognition by B cell receptors, the antigen is engulfed into B cell and processed via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antigen is digested into fragments, which are then displayed at the cell surface nestled inside a class II histocompatibility molecule. B cells function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to T cells. Helper T cells specific for this structure bind the B cell and secretes cytokines that activate the B cell. These cytokines stimulate B cell proliferation and differentiation into plasma cell that secrete the soluble B cell receptors, which we now call antibodies. A small number of B cells further develop into memory B cells, which express high affinity surface immunoglobulins (mainly IgG), survive for a longer period of time, and enable the rapid secondary response.

B Cell References

    1. Waldmann H, et al. (1975) B cell activation. Transplant Rev. 23:213-22.
    2. Freedman AS,et al. (1987) B cell development in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Hematol. 24(4):230-9.
    3. Dorshkind K,et al. (1992) Regulation of B cell differentiation by bone marrow stromal cells. Int J Cell Cloning. 10(1):12-7.
    4. Tedder TF. (2009) CD19: a promising B cell target for rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 5(10):572-7.
    5. Khan WN. (2009) B cell receptor and BAFF receptor signaling regulation of B cell homeostasis. J Immunol. 183(6):3561-7.