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Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Related Areas

Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Related Pathways

Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Related Product

    Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Summary & Protein Information

    Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Background

    Gene Summary: The angiotensinogen protein encoded by this AGT gene, pre-angiotensinogen or angiotensinogen precursor, is expressed in the liver and is cleaved by the enzyme renin in response to lowered blood pressure. The resulting product, angiotensin I, is then cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to generate the physiologically active enzyme angiotensin II. The angiotensinogen protein is involved in maintaining blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and preeclampsia. Mutations in this AGT gene are associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension, and can cause renal tubular dysgenesis, a severe disorder of renal tubular development. Defects in this AGT gene have also been associated with non-familial structural atrial fibrillation, and inflammatory bowel disease.
    General information above from NCBI
    Subunit structure: During pregnancy, exists as a disulfide-linked 2:2 heterotetramer with the proform of PRG2 and as a complex (probably a 2:2:2 heterohexamer) with pro-PRG2 and C3dg.
    Subcellular location: Secreted.
    Tissue specificity: Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
    Post-translational: Beta-decarboxylation of Asp-34 in angiotensin-2, by mononuclear leukocytes produces alanine. The resulting peptide form, angiotensin-A, has the same affinity for the AT1 receptor as angiotensin-2, but a higher affinity for the AT2 receptor.
    In response to low blood pressure, the enzyme renin/REN cleaves angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin-1. Angiotensin-1 is a substrate of ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) that removes a dipeptide to yield the physiologically active peptide angiotensin- 2. Angiotensin-1 and angiotensin-2 can be further processed to generate angiotensin-3, angiotensin-4. Angiotensin 1-9 is cleaved from angiotensin-1 by ACE2 and can be further processed by ACE to produce angiotensin 1-7, angiotensin 1-5 and angiotensin 1-4. Angiotensin 1-7 has also been proposed to be cleaved from angiotensin-2 by ACE2 or from angiotensin-1 by MME (neprilysin).
    The disulfide bond is labile. Angiotensinogen is present in the circulation in a near 40:60 ratio with the oxidized disulfide- bonded form, which preferentially interacts with receptor-bound renin.
    Involvement in disease: Essential hypertension (EHT) [MIM:145500]: A condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than normal with no identifiable cause. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]: Autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype). Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Sequence similarity: Belongs to the serpin family.
    General information above from UniProt

    Angiotensinogen, also known as AGT and SerpinA8, is a member of the serpin family. It is an α-2-globulin that is produced constitutively and released into the circulation mainly by the liver. Angiotensinogen is a essential component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a potent regulator of blood pressure. Angiotensinogen can be schematically considered to consist of a combination of an angiotensin I (Ang I) function, located at the N-terminal end, and the presence of a serpin (serine protease inhibitor) structure at the opposite end. Angiotensinogen is cleaved into three chains: Angiotensin-1 (Ang I), Angiotensin-2 (Ang II), and Angiotensin-3 (Ang III). Angiotensin-1 is a substrate of ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) that removes a dipeptide to yield the physiologically active peptide angiotensin-2. Angiotensin-1 and angiotensin-2 can be further processed to generate angiotensin-3, angiotensin-4. Angiotensin 1-7 is cleaved from angiotensin-2 by ACE2. Angiotensin-2 acts directly on vascular smooth muscle as a potent vasoconstrictor, affects cardiac contractility and heart rate through its action on the sympathetic nervous system. Defects in AGT are associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension and renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD). Several serpins (antithrombin, maspin, pigment epithelial-derived factor, and kallistatin) have been recently shown to exert an antiangiogenic activity, suggesting a common mechanism of endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Angiotensinogen/AGT and its renin-cleaved product, des(Ang I)AGT, are also angiogenesis inhibitors, both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations within the range of those observed in plasma. The Angiotensinogen products, that is angiotensin II and possibly angiotensin II-related products, have been found to act locally in modulating adipose tissue growth in an autocrine/paracrine manner. The transient or chronic overexpression of angiotensinogen in adipose tissue favors lipogenesis in adipocytes and leads to a 'vicious' circle whereby adipose tissue development is further increased.

    Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Alternative Name

    Angiotensinogen/SerpinA8/AGT Related Studies

  • Ailhaud G, et al. (2002) Angiotensinogen, adipocyte differentiation and fat mass enlargement. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 5(4): 385-9.
  • Corvol P, et al. (2003) Inhibition of angiogenesis: a new function for angiotensinogen and des(angiotensin I)angiotensinogen. Curr Hypertens Rep. 5(2): 149-54.
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