Sino Biological offers a wide selection of quality reagents for adhesion molecule related research, includingrecombinant proteins, antibodies, ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones.
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Adhesion molecules are a group of proteins located on the cell surface, which are involved with binding cells to one another or binding cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM). All adhesion molecules are integral membrane proteins that have cytoplasmic, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The cytoplasmic tail often interacts with cytoskeletal proteins which serve as the actual anchor within the cell. The extracellular domains of adhesion molecules extend from the cell and bind to other cells or ECM by binding to other adhesion molecules of the same type (homophilic binding), binding to other adhesion molecules of a different type (heterophilic binding) or binding to an intermediary 'linker' which itself binds to other adhesion molecules. Adhesion molecules play critical roles in a variety of biological processes. For example, one important part adhesion molecules serve in the immune system is to enhance pairing between many less avid receptors and their ligands and transmit signals that direct specific effecter functions during an inflammatory response. In development they play key roles in cell migration, tissue morphogenesis, and axon guidance. Adhesion molecules have also been discovered to play a critical role in the process of metastatic tumor dissemination.
Adhesion molecules include cadherins, Ig superfamily cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), integrins, lectins, and others. Cadherins cause adhesion via homophilic binding to other cadherins in a calcium-dependent manner. E-cadherin promote homotypic tumor cell adhesion function to maintain intercellular contacts that confine cells to the primary tumor site and are negatively correlated with metastatic potential. The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are calcium-independent transmembrane glycoproteins, including: neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs), intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAMs), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM), and others. Integrins are a diverse and large group of heterodimeric glycoproteins consist of two subunits (alpha and beta), which both participate in binding. Specially, integrins facilitate "communication" between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, allow each to influence the orientation and structure of the other.