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Acute Phase Proteins

Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a large group of biochemically and functionally unrelated proteins whose plasma concentrations increase or decrease in response to tissue injury, acute infections, burns, or chronic inflammation. Levels of acute phase proteins can either increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) several fold soon after the onset of a systematic inflammatory reaction. The acute phase proteins include C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, mannose binding proteins, complement components, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), etc.

Sino Biological offers a comprehensive set of tools for research on acute phase proteins, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, ELISA kits, and ORF cDNA clones.

Acute Phase Protein Products

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  • Serum amyloid A1 / SAA1
  • Serum amyloid A4 / SAA4
  • PLA2G4A
 

Acute Phase Protein Related Areas

Home>> Inflammation / Inflammatory Mediator >>Acute Phase Protein

Acute Phase Protein Background

Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a large group of biochemically and functionally unrelated proteins whose plasma concentrations increase or decrease in response to tissue injury, acute infections, burns, or chronic inflammation. Levels of acute phase proteins can either increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) several fold soon after the onset of a systematic inflammatory reaction. Acute phase proteins are synthesized predominantly in the liver. In response to injury, local inflammatory cells (neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages) secrete a number of cytokines into the bloodstream, most notable of which are the interleukins IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, and TNF-α. Following stimulation hepatocytes produce a number of proteins and release them into circulations; these proteins are thus referred to as positive acute phase proteins. At the same time, the production of a number of other proteins is reduced; these are, therefore, referred to as negative acute phase proteins. Positive acute-phase proteins serve different physiological functions in the innate immunity. Some act to destroy or inhibit growth of microbes, while others give negative feedback on the inflammatory response. The Levels of elevated expression of acute phase proteins can differ widely from species to species and some proteins that function as an acute phase protein in one species may not be an acute phase protein in another species.

The acute phase proteins include C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, mannose binding proteins, complement components, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), etc. Perhaps the best known acute phase protein is CRP. The level of CRP in blood plasma can rise as high as 1000-fold with inflammation. Especially, marked rises in CRP reflect the presence and intensity of inflammation. SAA is another acute phase protein used to detect and monitor infection and inflammatory disease. Ferritin, also an acute phase protein, is a primary iron-storage protein and often measured to assess a patient's iron status.

Acute Phase Protein Related Studies

    1. Ananian P, et al. (2005). Serum acute-phase protein level as indicator for liver failure after liver resection". Hepatogastroenterology 52(63): 857–61.
    2. Correale M, et al. (2008) Acute phase proteins in atherosclerosis (acute coronary syndrome). Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 6(4):272-7.
    3. Tsiakalos A, et al. (2009) Acute-phase proteins as indicators of bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Int. 29(10):1538-42.
    4. Kujala M, et al. (2010) Serum acute phase proteins as a marker of inflammation in dairy cattle with hoof diseases. Vet Rec. 166(8):240-1.

 

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