**********Please Note: Optimal concentrations/dilutions should be determined by the end user.**********
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a 34.2 kDa glycosylated protein with 299 amino acid residues. There are three isoforms in human (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) due to different amino acid residues at positions 112 and 158. ApoE is synthesized predominantly in the liver, but also by cells in the spleen, brain, lung, kidney, ovary, adrenal, and muscle tissues. Hepatic parenchyma cells are the main apoE producing cells in mammalian body, probably accounting for two thirds to three fourths of the plasma apoE . In the nervous system, apoE mRNA is present in neurons, astrocytes, ependymal cells, nonmyelinating Schwann cells, but not in microglia, oligodendroglia, choroidal cells, or myelinating Schwann cells. ApoE produced by mammalian cells exists in different forms, monomers, dimers, modified, unmodified, lipid-rich, and lipid-poor, and so forth. ApoE plays a double-role in immune responses. Both apoE containing lipoproteins and multimers of synthetic apoE peptides inhibited proliferation of cultured lymphocytes by inhibiting DNA synthesis and reducing phospholipid turnover in T cells. ApoE can also affect innate and acquired immune responses in vitro by its ability to suppress stimulation of cultured neutrophils. ApoE can bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS), attenuate the inflammatory response, and thus reduce LPS induced lethality. Injection of LPS stimulated higher expression of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), as well as IL-6.