Aldose reductase (AKR1B1) belongs to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. AKR1B1 is a NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase best known as the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. Expression of AKR1B1 was the highest in lens and retina. It is the first enzyme in the polyol pathway through which glucose is converted to sorbitol which is important for the function of various organs in the body, and has been implicated in the etiology of diabetic complications. AKR1B1 is quite abundant in the collecting tubule cells and thought to provide protection against hypertonic environment. Some human tissues contain AKR1B1 as well as AKR1B10, a closely related member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.
AKR1B1 ELISA Pair sets
AKR1B1 cDNA Clones
ADR, ALDR1, ALR2, AR, MGC1804 [Homo sapiens]
Entrez Gene summary for AKR1B1:
This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member catalyzes the reduction of a number of aldehydes, including the aldehyde form of glucose, and is thereby implicated in the development of diabetic complications by catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol. Multiple pseudogenes have been identified for this gene. The nomenclature system used by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee to define human aldo-keto reductase family members is known to differ from that used by the Mouse Genome Informatics database.
OMIM - description for AKR1B1:
See aldehyde reductase (103830). Aldose reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) is a member of the monomeric, NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family and participates in glucose metabolism and osmoregulation. It is believed to play a protective role against toxic aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis that could affect cell growth/differentiation when accumulated (Lefrancois-Martinez et al., 2004). It is the first enzyme of the polyol pathway of sugar metabolism, is most abundantly expressed in adrenal gland, and has been implicated in diabetic complications
Wikipedia summary for AKR1B1:
Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase), also known as AR, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1B1 gene
Recommended name: Aldose reductase Short name=AR
Belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family.
Alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H.
Highly expressed in embryonic epithelial cells (EUE) in response to osmotic stress.
|Enzyme regulation||Cys-299 may regulate the kinetic and inhibition properties of the enzyme, but does not participate in catalysis.|
General information above from UniProt
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
- aldo-ketoreductase, reducing aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, with less activity than AKR1A1
- obligatory mediator of TNF-alpha signaling leading to an increase in the expression of adhesion molecules and increased binding of monocytes to the endothelium
- AKR1B1 is implicated in the development of a number of diabetic complications
- AKR1B1 plays an important role in the regulation of hepatic PPARalpha phosphorylation and activity and lipid homeostasis
- AKR1B1 potent regulator of TGF-B1 induced expression of fibronectin in human mesangial cells, suggesing that inhibition of this enzyme may be useful to prevented extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in glomerulosclerosis
- The first enzyme in AKR1B1 is the polyol pathway
- prostaglandin F(2A) (PGF2A) synthase, which catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of PGH(2), a common intermediate of various prostanoids, to form PGF(2A)
- AKR1B1 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by modulating G1/S phase transition of cell cycle